Book Review: The BUDDHA & his TEACHINGS
Chapter 38: The way to realize Nibbana Page 543
- Transient and Sorrowful are all Conditioned Things
Soulless are both the Conditioned and the Un-conditioned.
- Impermanence is a Universal Characteristic of Nature that is to be realised. Non-Self (Anatta) means it is not a permanent unchanging Entity. It also implies Empty Nature of Existence.
- Both the conditioned and unconditioned Dhamma must be understood to enable one to Truly understand life.
1. Jhana (Jhanic state) only suppresses and inhibits the mental hindrances temporarily. Hence Evil tendencies can still surface anytime in the future when there is condition. Only Insight born of Vipassana meditation can wholly eradicate them with Wisdom (Panna) after realising the 3 Universal Characteristics of Impermanence, Unsatisfactoriness and Non-Self.
2. Our present existence is due to past causes of Ignorance (Avijja), Craving (tanha), Grasping (Upadana), Kamma and Physical food of Present Life, etc.
3. Everything is in a state of constant flux within the conditioned arising and dependent originating world.
4. Eventually, when one realises cessation (a glimpse of Nibbana) for the first time, one becomes a Sotapanna or a Stream Enterer. With this change of Lineage one becomes an Ariya (a Noble One). One has eradicated the first 3 Fetters of the 10 fetters that bind living beings to samsara. They are:
- Sakkayadithi, – Wrong understanding (self-delusion) that believes in a permanent unchanging Self.
- Doubt with regards to the existence of Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, Disciplinary Rules, Past and Future and the law of Dependent Origination.
- Adherence to Wrongful Rites and Rituals
A Sotapanna will not violate any of the 5 Precepts and will have a maximum of 7 more lives to live in the sensual Realms till it becomes an Arahant.
5. With further cultivation he will progress to a Sakadagami (a Once-Returner) stage by weakening 2 more Fetters, Sense Desire and Ill will. He may still show occasional signs of subtle anger and craving. He will be born in the Human Realm only once before realising Anagami leading to Arahantship.
6. The third stage of sainthood is an Anagami (a Non-returner). He would have uprooted the next 2 fetters of the previous stage entirely with the balance of the last 5 fetters of minor conceit or Pride (Mana), Restlessness (uddhacca), Ignorance (Avija), attachment to Form Realms and Formless Realms remaining. After death, he is reborn in the Pure Abodes to complete his cultivation.
7. Those in the first 3 Stages of Sainthood are term Sekhas as they still require training. However, an Arahant do not need any more training and is known as an Asekha (beyond training). He is not subject to rebirth as he does not have any more avijja.
8. The Anagmis and Arahants can go through uninterrupted Nibbanic Cessation for 7 days or longer. In this cessation (which is the unconditioned) his mental activities (including the pure awareness) all ceased. His stream of life force consciousness also temporarily ceases to flow, but the body’s vitality and faculties are still intact. He appears to be dead with no respiration, no heart beat (pulse) and perception, but his life force will return to his body eventually.
9. Bro Teoh reviewed the outline short notes of August 8 2019 Thursday class regarding awareness, daily mindfulness and how to develop the requisite wisdom to see and accept things as they are.
(Above outline short notes draft was prepared by Sister Yoon Chun)
With metta always,